This thesis can be roughly divided into two parts. In the first three chapters, we discussed and studied the role of Hsp70 in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, and the innate and adaptive immune response. We reviewed the relationship of T cell-mediated diseases and HSPs, and pointed out that the induction of Hsp70 may contribute to therapeutic tolerance (chapter 2). Then, we explored a new Hsp70 co-inducer, leucinostatin, and its role in canine RPE cells (chapter 3). Further, we studied the anti-inflammatory effects of Hsp70 in canine macrophages (chapter 4). In the last two chapters, we focus on various differently activated canine macrophage subsets originating from both primary monocytes and a monocyte-like cell line (030D cell) (chapter 5 and 6). We successfully polarized canine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) into M1 and M2 cells and thoroughly characterized their features (chapter 5). Meanwhile, we demonstrated that 030D cells can be differentiated into M1 and M2 macrophages and that each subset shares the characteristics of the corresponding canine monocyte-derived macrophage subset. Results and conclusions from each chapter are summarized hereafter.